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This page will provide links for books, articles, websites and training materials relating to ministry and care-giving in trauma settings. If you are aware of good materials, please send them as PDF files or provide the details or links and email them to stephen@emergencyministry.com.au

Last updated 26th November, 2014..

Burnout, Depression, Compassion Fatigue and Stress in Clergy and other Carers

Disaster and Crisis Intervention

Disaster Recovery

Grief Recovery


Liturgies for Disaster Recovery

Ministry Response to Disasters

Personal Accounts

Practical Theology

Theodicy and Theology

Trauma, Critical Incident Stress, PTSD and Secondary PTSD

Training Materials

Websites with useful material

Burnout, Depression, Compassion Fatigue and Stress in Clergy and other Carers

(Compassion Fatigue Self-Test) "ProQOL R-IV Professional Qulaity of Life Scale Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue Subscales — Revision IV" http://www.isu.edu/~bhstamm/documents/proqol/ProQOL_vIV_English_Oct05.pdf

Figley, Charles R. "The Art and Science of Caring for others without Forgetting Self-Care" (Good article with further references) http://www.giftfromwithin.org/html/artscien.html (accessed November 2014)

Figley, Charles R. "Compassion Fatigue: An Expert Interview with Charles R. Figley. From Medscape Psychiatry & Mental Health> Expert Interview, 10/17/2005 Click here (accessed November 2014)

Gilbert, Barbara G. Who Ministers to Ministers? A Study of Support Systems for Clergy and Spouses. Baltimore, MD: Alban Institute, 1987.

Green Cross Academy of Traumatology "Standards of Self Care Guidelines" For PDF click here

Hart, Archibald. Adrenaline and Stress. Nashville, TN: Word, 1995.

Hart, Archibald. Coping with Depression in the Ministry and Other Helping Professions. Waco, TX: Word, 1984.

Kaldor, Peter, and Rod Bulpitt. Burnout in Church Leaders. Harboard, NSW: National Church Life Survey, 2001.

Maslach, Christina. Burnout: The Cost of Caring. Paramus, NJ:Prentice-Hall, 1982.

Nouwen, Henri J. M. The Wounded Healer: Ministry in Contemporary Society. New York: Doubleday, 1979.

Ochberg, Frank M. "When Helping Hurts" http://www.giftfromwithin.org/html/helping.html

Oswald, Roy. M. Clergy Self-Care: Finding a Balance for Effective Ministry. New York: Alban Institute, 1991.

Powell, Cliff, and Graham Barker. Unloading the Overload: Stress Management for Christians. Sydney, NSW: Strand, 1998.

Pryor, Robin J. At Cross Purposes: Stress and Support in the Ministry of the Wounded Healer. Melbourne, Vic: Uniting Church, Victoria, 1986.

Pryor, Robin J. High Calling High Stress, Melbourne, Vid: Uniting Church, Synod of Victoria, 1982.

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Disaster and Crisis Intervention

Aguilera, Donna C., and Messick, Janice M. Crisis Intervention: Theory and Methodology. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 1986.

Australian Government. Attorney-General’s Department. Emergency Management Australia. Psychological Services in the Disaster Context. Guidelines for Disaster Management Practice: Final Draft, n.c., n.s., n.p, n.d. http://www.ema.gov.au/ agd/ema/rwpattach.nsf/viewasattachmentPersonal/E5C905C7D6319978CA256C85001C135B/$file/
(accessed February 27, 2006).

Australian Government. Attorney-General’s Department. Emergency Management Australia. Emergency Management Australia Disasters Database. (Dickson, Australian Capital Territory: Emergency Management Australia, 2005), http://www.ema.gov.au/ema/emadisasters.nsf/6a1bf6b4b60f6f05ca256d1200179a5b/ 866614596bedf7a7ca256d33000583e0?OpenDocument (accessed March 4, 2005).

Australian Government. Emergency Management Australia. Australian Emergency Management Glossary, Manual 3, Australian Emergency Manual Series Part 1: The Fundamentals. Dickson, Australian Capital Territory: Emergency Management Australia, 1998, http://www.ema.gov.au/agd/EMA/rwpattach.nsf/ VAP/(383B7EDC29CDE21FBA276BBBCE12CDC0)~Manual+03.pdf/$file/Manual+03.pdf (accessed February 26, 2006).

Australian Government. Attorney-General’s Department.  Australian Emergency Management Terms Thesaurus. [web-based database of terms used in Emergency Management - including prefered terminology]. Created January 2009 (accessed September 1, 2009)  http://library.ema.gov.au/emathesaurus/

Everly, G. Innovations in Disaster and Trauma Psychology. Ellicott City, MD: Chevron, 1995.

Foa, E. B., T. M. Keane, and M. J. Friedman. Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. (forthcoming).

Greenstone, James L., and Sharon C. Leviton. Elements of Crisis Intervention: Crises and How to Respond to Them, 2d ed. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole, 1993.

Herman, Judith Lewis. Trauma and Recovery. New York: Basic Books, 1997.

Hoff, Lee Ann. People in Crisis: Understanding and Helping, 3d ed. Redwood City, CA: Addison Wesley, 1989.

New South Wales Government, Department of Mental Health. Disaster Mental Health Response Handbook. North Sydney: NSW Health, 2000, http://www.nswiop.nsw.edu.au/Resources/Disaster_Handbook.pdf (accessed February 21, 2006).

Raphael, B. Disasters Management. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council, Australian Government Publishing Service, 1993; Quoted in New South Wales, Disaster Mental Health Response Handbook.

Raphael, Beverley. “The Granville Train Disaster: Psychological Needs and Their Management” Medical Journal of Australia 9, (1977): 303-305.

Raphael, Beverley. When Disaster Strikes: A Handbook for Caring Professionals. London: Hutchinson, 1986.

Raphael, Beverley and Lenore Meldrum. “Helping People Cope with Trauma.” In Coping with Trauma: The Victim and the Helper, eds. Rod Watts and David J. de L Horne. Brisbane, Qld: Australian Academic Press, 1994.

Tunnecliffe, Michael. A Life in Crisis: 27 Lessons from Acute Trauma Counselling Work. Palmyra, Western Australia: Bayside Books, 2007.

Young, M. A. Responding to Communities in Crisis: The Training Manual of the Crisis Response Team. Washington, D.C.: NOVA, 1994.

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Disaster Recovery

Scurfield, Ray. Six Stages of Disaster Recovery. [A chart] Link to PDF here

Grief Recovery

Doka, Kenneth J. ed. Living with Grief after Sudden Loss. Washington, D.C.: Hospice Foundation of America, 1996.

Pearson, Althea. Growing through Loss and Grief: A Counsellor’s Guide. London: Harper Collins, 1994.

Van der Poel, Cornelius. Growing through Pain and Suffering. Mystic, CT: Twenty-Third Publications, 1995.

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National Association for Loss And Grief (NSW Inc) [NALAG] "Helping Children After Disasters. [Easy to use leaflet advising parents and carers on how to help children following their exposure to a disaster] http://www.nalag.org.au/pubs/Helping%20Children%20After%20Disaster.pdf (accessed 17th August, 2009)

Tunnecliffe, Michael and Blurton, Peter.  30 Things You Can Do When You are a Victim of Crime. Emergency Support Network, 2003. [Excellent ebook in PDF format. This publication is the electronic version of the book originally published in 1995 by the Margaret and Shane Foundation]. http://www.emergencysupport.com.au/documents/Victim-Survivor.pdf (accessed July 20, 2007)

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Liturgies for Disaster Recovery

Anderson, Ronald. “Memorial Service for Rural Firefighters” Used at Government House, Sydney, Friday, January 1, 1999. (PDF)

Anderson, Ronald. "Prayer of Dedication over the Memorial to all Emergency Service Volunteers" Lady Macquarie's Chair, Sydney Harbour, 2001. (PDF)


King Jr., Martin Luther. “Eulogy for the Young Victims of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church Bombing.” Delivered at Sixth Avenue Baptist Church, Birmingham, Alabama on 18 September 1963. http://www.smes.org/Chaplains/MLKSpeeches/Eulogy.mht (accessed February 27, 2006).

Hunt, Rex A. A. Liturgy, Liturgists and Port Arthur. New Springboards: A Publication of the Assembly Commission on Liturgy, Uniting Church in Australia. June 1996.

Indonesian Christian Community in Sydney and St Stephen’s Uniting Church, Sydney. “A Memorial Service for the Victims of the Bali Tragedy”. Wednesday 30th October, 2002. (Accessed June 26, 2007).

Liebelt, Philip, ed. Carrying Rainbows of Hope: Liturgical Resources for Use after Disasters and Personal Tragedies. Sydney, NSW: National Disaster Recovery Consultative Group, Uniting Church National Assembly, 2003. http://assembly.uca.org.au/images/stories/Disaster/rainbows.pdf (accessed June 9, 2010).

McRae-McMahon, Dorothy “Grieving Our Violence – Bali. Written by Rev Dorothy McRae-McMahon for the UCA Pitt Street, Sydney service of grieving for the victims of the Bali violence. Tuesday October 15th, 2002 (Accessed June 26, 2007).

The NSW Rural Fire Service joined by The Ambulance Service of NSW State Emergency Service NSW Volunteer Rescue Association. “Memorial Service for men, women and children who lost their lives or were injured as a result of the terrorist attack on the United States of America on the 11th of September 2001.” Service Conducted in Sydney, October 1st 2001. (PDF)

Uniting Church in Australia, NSW Synod, UnitingCare NSW/ACT. Prayer service prepared by the Center of Concern, Washington DC. Following the 911 Terrorist Attacks. 2001. (Accessed June 26, 2007).

Youth Ministry Blog.  Bushfire Reflection Resources.  Links to various blogs holding resources written for the Victorian Bushfire Emergency. http://blog.digitalorthodoxy.com/?p=1015

About Liturgies for Disaster Recovery

Eyre, Anne. “In Remembrance: Post disaster rituals and symbols” Fire Service College and Centre for Disaster Management, Coventry University. (undated). (Accessed June 26, 2007).

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Ministry Response to Disasters

Abrahams, Grahame.  Managing a Disaster: Thredbo—Disaster to Recovery: A Chaplain’s Perspective. Course paper, Camden Theological Library, Uniting Church Centre for Ministry, North Parramatta, NSW 1998.

Allen, Ronald. “How We Respond to Natural Disaster,” Theology Today 38, no. 4 (1982): 458-64.

Chinnici, Rosemary. “Pastoral Care Following a Natural Disaster.” Pastoral Psychology 33, no. 4 (1985): 245-54.

Church Response. "Pandemics and Emergency Preparedness: a Church Response" (various articles) http://www.churchresponse.org/ (Accessed June 28, 2007)

Everly, Jr., George S. “The Role of Pastoral Crisis Intervention in Disasters, Terrorism, Violence, and Other Community Crises.” International Journal of Emergency Mental Health 2, no. 3 (2000): 139-142.

Jordan, Craig. “Pastoral Care and Chronic Disaster Victims: The Buffalo Creek Experience.” Paper presented at the annual convention of the College of Chaplains, the American Protestant Hospital Association, New Orleans, LA: March 11, 1975.

Jordan, M. R. A “Spiritual Perspective on Trauma and Treatment.” NCP Quarterly 5, no. 1 (Winter 1995): 9-10.

McBride, Nigel, and Tunnecliffe, Michael. Risky Business: A Counsellor’s Guide to Risk Management in Private Practice, 2d ed. Palmyra, WA: Bayside Books, 2002.

National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster. Light our Way: a Guide to Spiritual Care in Times of Disaster for Disaster Response Volunteers, First Responders and Disaster Planners. First Edition Revised., NVOAD, 2006. [An outstanding resource with contributions from a multi-faith chaplaincy perspective] Click here  (Accessed November 2014)

Stewart, George. “Ministry in Disaster Situations.” Paper presented at the National Consultation on Disaster Ministry, Uniting Church in Australia, at Nunyara Conference Centre, Adelaide, SA, May 19, 1982.

Switzer, David K., Pastoral Care Emergencies. New York: Paulist Press, 1989.

Switzer, David K., The Minister as Crisis Counselor, Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1974.

Victorian Council of Churches. Disaster Recovery Manual 1995. Melbourne, Vic: Victorian Council of Churches, 1995.

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Personal Accounts

Altmann, Carol, After Port Arthur: Personal Stories of Courage and Resilience Ten Years on from the Tragedy that Shocked the Nation, Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2006.

Woodland, Don (with Simon Bouda), Picking up the Pieces: a Life of Care and Compassion, Sydney: MacMIllan, 2006.


Practical Theology

Anderson, Ray S. Ministry on the Fireline: A Practical Theology for an Empowered Church. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993.

Anderson, Ray S. Self Care: A Theology of Personal Empowerment and Spiritual Healing. Wheaton, IL: Bridgepoint, 1995.

Anderson, Ray S. The Shape of Practical Theology: Empowering Ministry with Theological Praxis. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2001.

Knight, J. A. “Minister and Healer: Each as the Other.” In Psychiatry and Religion. ed. L. H. Robinson. 51-72. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, 1986.

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Theodicy and Theology

Blanchard, John. Where Was God on September 11? Darlington, England: Evangelical Press, 2002.

Bonhoeffer, Dietrich. The Cost of Discipleship. London: SCM Press, 1959.

Boston, Thomas. “How We Ought to Think about God’s Providence.” http://www.puritansermons.com/boston/bost1.htm (accessed February 27, 2006).

Hunt, Rex A. A. Liturgy, Liturgists and Port Arthur. New Springboards: A Publication of the Assembly Commission on Liturgy, Uniting Church in Australia. June 1996. http://www.rexaehuntprogressive.com/articles_collection/port_arthur.html (Accessed May 16, 2007)

Kushner, Harold S. When Bad Things Happen to Good People. London: Pan Books, 1982.

Lewis, C. S. The Problem of Pain. London: Collins, 1940.

Moltmann, Jurgen. The Crucified God: The Cross of Christ as the Foundation and Criticism of Christian Theology. London: SCM Press, 1974.

Tedeschi, R. G., and L. G. Calhoun. Trauma and Transformation: Growth in the Aftermath of Suffering. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1995.

Wesley, John. Sermon number 67 “On the Providence of God.” 1872 edition, paragraph 7. ed. Thomas Jackson Wesley Center Online, North West Nazarene University.Click here (accessed, November 2014).

Yancey, Philip. Where Is God When It Hurts? A Comforting, Healing Guide for Coping with Hard Times. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1990.

Yancey, Philip. “Where Was God on 9/11.” Christianity Today http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2001/143/21.0.html (accessed November 2014).

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Trauma, Critical Incident Stress, PTSD and Secondary PTSD

Alberta Professions and Occupations Bureau, Critical Incident Stress Debriefing Training Alberta, AB: Professions and Occupations Bureau, 1989); Cited in Michael Stewart and Peter Hodgkinson. “Post-Traumatic Stress Reactions in the Professional.” In Coping with Trauma: The Victim and the Helper, eds. Rod Watts and David J. de L..Horne, 53-72. Brisbane, Qld: Australian Academic Press, 1994.

Allen, Pamela. Who Sank the Boat? New York: Putnam, 1985.

American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R), 3d ed. rev. (Washington, DC: Author, 1987); Quoted in Beverley Raphael and Lenore Meldrum, “Helping People Cope with Trauma.” In Coping with Trauma: The Victim and the Helper, eds. Rod Watts and Davod J. de L Horne, 1-20.. Brisbane, AU: Australian Academic Press, 1994, 21-22.

Avery, A., S. King, R. Bretherton, and R. Ortner “Deconstructing Psychological Debriefings and the Emergence of Calls for Evidence-Based Practice.” Traumatic Stress Points 13, no. 2 (1999): 6-8.

Cozolino, Louis J. “The Impact of Trauma on the Brain.” Psychotherapy in Australia, 11, no. 3 (May 2005): 22-35.

Figley, C. R. ed. Compassion Fatigue. New York: Brunner-Routledge, 2002.

Hudnall-Stamm, B. ed. Secondary Traumatic Stress: Self-Care issues for Clinicians, Researchers and Educators. Lutherville, MD: Sidran Press, 1995.

McMahon, Calt. “Covering Disaster: A Pilot Study into Secondary Trauma for Print Media Journalists Reporting on Disaster.” Australian Journal of Emergency Management 16, no. 2 (2001): 52-56.

Mitchell, Jeffrey T. When Disaster Strikes: The Critical Incident Stress Debriefing Process. Journal of Emergency Medical Services, 8, (1983): 36-39.

Mitchell, Jeffrey T. “Protecting Your People from Critical Incident Stress.” Fire Chief, May 1992, 61-63.

Mitchell, J., and Everly, G. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing. Ellicott City, MD: Chevron, 1993.

Palm K. M., M. A. Polusny, and V. M. Follette. “Vicarious Traumatization: Potential Hazards and Interventions for Disaster and Trauma Workers.” Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 19. no. 1 (2004): 73–78.

Raphael, B., B. Singh, L. Bradbury, and F. Lambert. “Who Helps the Helpers? The Effects of a Disaster on the Rescue Workers.” OMEGA, 14, no. 1 (1983-84).

Snelgrov, Toby.“Psychological-Educational Debriefings and Outcome Assessment: A Point of View,” http://www.ctsn-rcst.ca/PsychoEd.html (accessed February 21, 2006).

Solomon, Z., Y. Neria, and E. Witzlum. “Debriefing with Service Personnel in War and Peace Roles: Experience and Outcomes.” In Stress Debriefing: Theory, Practice and Evidence, eds. B. Raphael and J. Wilson. London: Cambridge University Press, 2000; Cited in New South Wales, Disaster Mental Health Response Handbook, 71.

Stewart, Michael, and Peter Hodgkinson. “Post-Traumatic Stress Reactions in the Professional.” In Coping with Trauma: The Victim and the Helper, eds. Rod Watts and David J. de L. Horne, 53-72. Brisbane, Qld: Australian Academic Press, 1994.

Tunnecliffe, Michael. How to Manage the Stress of Traumatic Incidents: A Guide for Police, Ambulance, Fire, and Emergency Service Personnel. Updated ed. Palmyra, WA: Bayside Books, 1999.

Valent, Paul. “Diagnosis and Treatment of Helper Stresses, Traumas and Illnesses.” In Treating Compassion Fatigue, ed.Charles R. Figley. New York: Brunner-Routledge, 2002.

Watts, Rod, and David J. de L. Horne, eds. Coping with Trauma: The Victim and the Helper. Brisbane, Qld: Australian Academic Press, 1994.

Wilson, John P., and Thomas A. Moran. "Psychological Trauma: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Spirituality." Journal of Psychology and Theology, 26, no. 2 (1998): 168-178.

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Training Materials

Disaster Spiritual Care: Disaster Tip Sheets for NYC Religious Leaders  http://www.nydis.org/downloads/Tips_SpiritualCare.pdf (accessed August 21, 2007)

Paget, Naomi. Southern Baptist Disaster Relief Chaplain Training Manual. North American Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention, Alpharetta, Georgia, 2004. DR Chaplain Training Manual (PDF)

Southern Baptist Disaster Relief Preparedness Manuals [These include family, church and organisational preparedness manuals and PowerPoint presentations for download] disaster-relief-preparedness

State Emergency Service (NSW).  Chaplaincy in SES Handbook (PDF)


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Websites with useful materials

Australian Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Health, University of Melbourne. http://www.acpmh.unimelb.edu.au/ (accessed July 20, 2007)

Emergency Support Network. http://www.emergencysupport.com.au/index.html (accessed July 20, 2007)

New York Disaster Interfaith Services http://www.nydis.org/NYDIS/index.php (accessed August 21, 2007)

Prof. Grant Devilly's Trauma Pages from the Centre For Neuropsychology at Swinburne University.  (accessed July 20, 2007)

Uniting Church in Australia.  A webpage with links and materials to disaster recovery liturgies and resources. Click here


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